The Ultimate Conclusion of Display Modes And Viewing Modes Of Monochrome Screen

Apr 13, 2021 | Articles

The Ultimate Conclusion of Display Modes And Viewing Modes Of Monochrome Screen


1. What are Monochrome Screens?
2. Monochrome LCD display
3. Types of Monochrome Screen Module
4. Monochrome Graphic LCD Screen Modules, Uses & Advantages
5. Monochrome LCD Segment Display & its Advantages
6. Monochrome Screen Modes
7. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Display Modes of Monochrome Screen
8. LCD Viewing Modes: Transmissive, Transflective, Reflective
9. Backlights
10. Diffuser

Many people don’t know the difference between display modes and viewing modes of monochrome screens. Of course, they don’t know their advantages and disadvantages. So we write this article to solve this question.

Display mode: TN, HTN, STN, FSTN, DSTN, CSTN, VA

The structure of TN, HTN, STN, FSTN, DFSTN, and CSTN is basically the same. TN is generally 90 degrees twisted, and HTN is 90 to 120 degrees twisted. STN is 180~270 degree distortion, FSTN, DSTN, CSTN are all STN, just because ordinary STN is generally yellow-green or blue. The appearance of FSTN and DSTN is black or white, FSTN is STN (Film compensated STN) with film certification, and DSTN is used Dual STN structure realizes black and white display, CSTN is generally FSTN structure plus color film structure to realize color display.

Display Modes

Viewing Modes: Transmissive, Transflective, Reflective

Viewing Modes

Transmissive looks like a transparent glass, and it needs a backlight to show the letters.
Transflective looks like a translucent glass, it can use or not use backlights to show the letters. In most cases, people will use backlights for it.
Reflective looks like a mirror with a Off-white background. It can show letters without backlight.
Note: Here backlight means external light source.

1.What Are Monochrome Screens?

Monochrome Screen

Monochrome screen display we usually call LCD(liquid crystal display). And it is composed of glass, crystal and polariser and films, meanwhile, its connection part we normally call pin assignment or FPC or conductive tape. And the whole module also includes IC and backlight.
Generally speaking. What we call LCD is about the glass part. LCD module means the whole module, which can be directly applied on final products.

2.Monochrome LCD Displays

Monochrome LCD technology is ideal for industrial and consumer applications. It offers high reliability and can be a graphic LCD or segmented glass LCD.


CreateXplay monochrome LCDs offers,
● Low power consumption,
● Versatility in size,
● Wide operating temperatures,
● Polariser options.

3.Types of Monochrome Screen Module

Graphic LCD VS Segment LCD

There are two types of monochrome screens listed below.
1. Graphic Screen
2. Segment Screen

4. Monochrome Graphic LCD Screen Modules

Graphic LCD

Have You ever wondered how devices display graphics and text on their LCD screen?
It is the work of a graphic LCD module. A graphic LCD is an electronic visual display technology that implements tiny crystals made from a liquid-crystal solution. The small crystals are manipulated to create images on a two-dimensional screen by producing accurate electronic signals.

What are the Uses of Graphic LCDs?

Graphic LCDs are standard now on electronic watches, calculators, and digital readers. They are used in flat-screen televisions, medical gadgets, and instruments. If customers want to design their own software and wanna show different images and symbols, graphic LCD would be more suitable.

What are the Advantages of a Monochrome LCD?

Many manufacturers use a graphic LCD because of its thin, lighter weight, and compact dimensions. It shows a clear display of three-dimensional images, consumes less power, and is more energy-efficient.
If you are unsure how to utilize it correctly for your business, you can contact us for better advice, and we’ll help you make the best choice. Users can easily read these displays with only alpha-numeric symbols or graphics in a single color.

5. Monochrome Segment LCD Display

Segment LCD

The segment LCD display is still widely used today, even though it has the longest history.
These Monochrome displays are reliable, long-lasting, and have been in use for many years. They display letters, numbers, and icons. A segment display is a static display with one pin for one segment.

What Are The Advantages Of Segment Displays?

There are many advantages of segment LCD display you need to know.

● Low Price

If we estimate from sizes and shapes, in the same circumstances, segment LCD will be cheaper than graphic LCD, and graphic LCD will be cheaper than TFT LCD, TFT LCD will be cheaper than OLED.

● Minimum Tooling Fee

The tooling fee for a custom segment display is the lowest of all the technologies and allows the customer to receive an LCD with desired dimensions, custom icons, and segments. On the contrary, if you want to get a custom size TFT LCD, it will cost much, normally, a $1m tooling fee with annual demand of no less than 1 million pieces. And if you need a custom size OLED. We are not talking about this in this article.

● Low Energy Consumption

Let’s conclude this in 3 parts, from reflective, transflective, transmissive modes. Normally, reflective segment LCD does no need backlight, and the numbers and icons can display with an external light source, and transflective segment LCD can also display with an external light source, and customers can choose to use a backlight or not, normally will add a backlight for transflective LCD. And finally, transmissive LCD needs an external light source. But all have extremely low power consumption.

6.Monochrome Screen Display Modes

Display Modes

Display modes include TN, HTN, STN, FSTN, DSTN, CSTN, and VA.

TN is twisted nematic. It has the fastest response speed, but its shortcomings are also obvious, that is, its viewing angle is very small.

HTN owns its advantage, and the viewing angle is bigger than TN.

STN is better than HTN.

FSTN is better than STN.

DFSTN can also be called FFSTN, it has one more polarizer than FSTN so it will be much better than FSTN.

CSTN is adding a color film to FSTN to make it colorful.

VA liquid crystal(Vertical Alignment liquid crystal) is the abbreviation for vertical alignment liquid crystal. Compared with TN liquid crystal, VA liquid crystal has higher contrast and a wider viewing angle.

7.Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Display Modes of Monochrome Screen

Before we introduce the advantages and disadvantages of display modes, here we need to discuss positive and negative first. Positive means white background (we will also call grey background) with black letters. Negative means black background with white letters.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Monochrome LCD

Here listed advantages and disadvantages of display Modes, and they are:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Monochrome LCD

TN: twisted nematic liquid crystal, which has the longest history, low cost, high luminous efficiency, and the fastest response speed.
On the contrary, the disadvantages are obvious.
A: the viewing angle is narrow
B: Color and contrast are inferior, most of them are native 6-bit panels, which can only display 64 colors of red, green, and blue, and the maximum actual color is only 262,000 colors. After dithering, there are close to 16.7 million colors (8-bit colors).
C: After the pixels are damaged, bright spots will be formed, which will have a higher impact on users (while VA and IPS panel pixels will mostly form dark or colored dots after damage, which has a lower visual impact compared to the lower ones)
HTN: It has all the advantages of TN, and the viewing angle is also a little wider. The disadvantages are the same as TN.
STN: It has all the advantages of HTN, and the viewing angle is also a little wider, the disadvantage, or we should call it features. It has higher requirements for manufacturing equipment and raw materials.
FSTN: It has all the advantages of STN, and is also, and high contrast ratio.
DFSTN: It will add a polarizer based on FSTN to let the LCD have a good display effect.
VA: Vertical-alignment displays are a form of LCDs in which the liquid crystals naturally align vertically to the glass substrates. It balanced TN’s advantages and disadvantages. Fast responding time, high ratio, and wide viewing angle.

8.LCD Viewing Modes: Transmissive, Transflective, Reflective

LCD Viewing Modes

LCD displays require an external light source. It is the mode of operation and can either be transmissive, transflective, reflective

● Transmissive Modes
When the light comes from a backlight passing through the LCD glass, depending on the orientation of liquid crystal molecules, it can be “switched” ON or OFF by an electrical field called transmissive—the LCD glass functions as an “optical switch. Backlights make the display content very bright by producing a lot of light. A transmissive LCD is the best choice for indoor applications because they are viewable in dark lighting conditions.
● Reflective Modes
Some LCD displays use ambient light rather than a backlight. This mode of operation is called reflective. A Reflective mirror is installed behind the liquid crystal layer either on the rear polarizer or inside the LCD cell in a reflective way. Surrounding light passes through the LCD cell from the front side and is reflected by the viewer by the mirror.
For outdoor daytime applications, it is best because of lower power consumption and excellent visibility in direct sunlight.
● Transflective Modes
Transflective LCD displays hold transmissive and reflective characteristics, and they contain a semi-transparent reflector and an integrated backlight unit. The reflector can be inside the LCD cell behind the liquid crystal layer or behind the rear polarizer. Light from the backlight passes through the semi-transparent reflector and observes the transmissive display.
Meanwhile, the surrounding light can be reflected so that the display is visible in direct sunlight. A reflective or transflective LCD is preferred For outdoor applications because of its energy efficiency.

9.What Are Backlights?

LCD Backlights

LED Backlight Advantages

  • Longer lifetime
  • There is no need for an inverter and no noise
  • Easier to control the brightness
  • Faster ON and OFF response time
  • It can operate at freezing temperatures.

10.Why Does LCD Screen Displays With LED Backlights Require a Diffuser?

LCD Diffuser

A diffuser is like a lampshade and is placed between the LED and the glass, and the purpose is to scatter the light. You will see the LED at the bottom of the diffuser, where you can see hot spots, but as the light travels further into the diffuser, the light disperses more evenly. The diffuser makes LED’s an acceptable option and solves the issue with hot spots.

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